Crown’s Landscaping & Garden Center is proud to be locally owned and operated in Winchester, Tennessee. Since we are local to the area, we have been dealing with the same lawn concerns for years. We know how to identify them, how to treat them, and how to effectively get rid of them!
A "weed" is anything that one does not want in their lawn. Middle Tennessee has several weeds that tend to be invasive in lawns. We have identified a few common weeds we see in our area.
Scientific name: Poa annua
Higher classification: Meadow-grasses
Annual bluegrass (Poa annua) is a cool-season, annual grass that spreads by seed. Annual bluegrass has a tufted habit with a bright green leaf color and fine texture. It is native to Europe and is found worldwide. Annual bluegrass grows with a clumping growth habit. Generally appears in bunches. Leaves are folded in the bud and have a boat-shaped leaf tip. They have a wrinkled section near the middle of the blade and the seed-head is triangular in shape
Scientific name: Lolium multiflorum
Higher classification: Ryegrass
Festuca perennis is a ryegrass native to temperate Europe, though its precise native range is unknown. It is a herbaceous annual, biennial, or perennial grass that is grown for silage, and as a cover crop. It is also grown as an ornamental grass. Annual ryegrass grows in clumps. The plant base is purple and the leaves are dark and shiny with smooth edges. The bud is rolled in the center of the plant. You'll notice spikelets at the top near the seedheads.
Scientific name: Medicago lupulina
Higher classification: Medick
Medicago lupulina, commonly known as black medick, nonesuch, or hop clover, is a plant of dry grassland belonging to the legume or clover family. Plants of the genus Medicago, or bur clovers, are closely related to the true clovers and sweet clover. The plant is hairy, especially the stems. Leaves are alternate to one another and are divided into three egg-to-heart shaped leaflets with somewhat toothed edges. The stalk of the middle leaflet is longer. They are yellow and generally cluster to form a rounded head.
Scientific name: Plantago major
Higher classification: Plantago
Species: P. major
Plantago major, the broadleaf plantain, white man's foot, or greater plantain, is a species of flowering plant in the plantain family Plantaginaceae. The plant is native to most of Europe and northern and central Asia, but has widely naturalised elsewhere in the world. When plantains infest turf, they grow in dense clumps. The smooth, oval leaf blades are 2 to 6 inches in length. The young plants form a small rosette. The flowering stalk ends with a spike head containing seeds that can be 2 to 6 inches in length.
Scientific name: Geranium carolinianum
Higher classification: Crane's-bill
Geranium carolinianum is a species of geranium known by the common name Carolina crane's-bill, or Carolina geranium. This species is native to North America, where it is widespread and grows in many types of habitat. Identified by its elongated stems growing vertically and branching near the base. The stems are greenish-pink in color and hairy. Their leaves are also hairy on top and bottom and divided into five segments. Flowers are pale pink or white.
Scientific name: Mollugo verticillata
Higher classification: Mollugo
Mollugo verticillata, the green carpetweed, is a rapidly spreading annual plant from tropical America. In eastern North America, it is a common weed growing in disturbed areas. It forms a prostrate circular mat that can quickly climb over nearby plants and obstacles. Leaf surfaces are dull green and smooth with pale undersides and are pinkish brown in color toward the base. The stems are smooth. They are usually small and grow horizontal in circular mats.
Scientific name: Galium aparine
Higher classification: Galium
Galium aparine with many common names including hitchhikers, cleavers, clivers, bedstraw, goosegrass, catchweed, stickyweed, sticky bob, stickybud, stickyback, robin-run-the-hedge, sticky willy, sticky. The seed leaves are oblong to egg-shaped with slightly notched tips, lacking hairs, and range from 1/2 to 1 inch. Mature catchweed has stems up to 6 feet long and form dense and tangled mats over vegetation. Flowers are small and greenish-white on short branches.
Scientific name: Stellaria media
Higher classification: Chickweeds
Species: S. media
Stellaria media, chickweed, is an annual and perennial flowering plant in the family Caryophyllaceae. It is native to Eurasia and naturalized throughout the world. This species is used as a cooling herbal remedy, and grown as a vegetable crop and ground cover for both human and poultry consumption.Leaves are smooth and oval with a point at the tip. It has tiny white flowers that are about 1/4" in diameter. The stems trail along the ground and growing ends may be upright and grow up to 8" tall.
Scientific name: Trifolium
Higher classification: Trifolieae
Clover or trefoil are common names for plants of the genus Trifolium, consisting of about 300 species of flowering plants in the legume or pea family Fabaceae originating in Europe. Stems creep along the ground and can grow to between 4 and 12 inches long. Leaves alternate with one another and consist of three leaflets. Each leaflet is up to 1/2 an inch long, nearly hairless, and may have a whitish crescent in the center. Tiny white to pale pink flowers cluster into egg-shaped flower heads.
Scientific name: Digitaria
Higher classification: Anthephorinae
Germination temperature: around 55°F
Digitaria is a genus of plants in the grass family native to tropical and warm temperate regions but can occur in tropical, subtropical, and cooler temperate regions as well. Common names include crabgrass, finger-grass, and fonio. The leaf blades are a quarter inch wide and about the thickness of a pencil. When it first appears, the leaf blades angle out from the stem. As the stems get larger, they tend to fall out into a star pattern.
Scientific name: Oenothera laciniata
Higher classification: Evening-primroses Rank: Species
Oenothera laciniata is a species of flowering plant in the evening primrose family known by the common name cutleaf evening primrose. It is native to the eastern United States but it can be found in many other places as an introduced species and sometimes a noxious weed. The leaves are simple, either elliptic or lance-shaped. The leaf blade is narrow with deep irregular notches on the sides. The leaves are alternately arranged on the stems, which are reddish in color. Its leaves are covered with tiny hairs that secrete a toxic substance. If the leaves are touched, an immediate irritation can occur, forming blisters. In addition to its effect on humans, this plant is toxic to cats, dogs, and horses if ingested. May cause vomiting.
Scientific name: Paspalum dilatatum
Higher classification: Crowngrass
Paspalum dilatatum is a species of grass known by the common name dallisgrass, Dallas grass, or sticky heads. It is native to Brazil and Argentina, but it is known throughout the world as an introduced species and at times a common weed. Its rapid growth and spreading rhizomes make it an invasive pest in some areas. Coarse in texture, it grows in a clump and increases in diameter as you approach the stem. The leaf blades are fairly wid, 1/4" to 1/2". The rhizomes have short internodes that look like concentric rings on its surface.
Scientific name: Taraxacum
Higher classification: Daisy family
Dandelion is a plant with yellow flowers. Taraxacum officinale is the most common variety of this plant, and it grows in many parts of the world. Botanists consider dandelions to be herbs. People use the leaves, stem, flower, and root of the dandelion for medicinal purposes.Lance shaped leaves. Composite flower is yellow and 1 to 2". Flower gives way to white seed-head.
Family : Apiaceae
Kingdom : Plantae Phylum
Order : Apiales
Genus : Hydrocotyle
Species : bonariensis L.
Dollarweed (Hydrocotyle spp.), also known as pennywort, is a warm-season perennial weed. It gets the common name, dollarweed, from its silver- dollar-shaped leaves. The leaves of dollarweed are round, bright green, fleshy and look like miniature lily pads measuring 1-2” in diameter with a scalloped edge. Leaves are round in shape and dark green and glossy with scalloped edges. The flower is small with five white petals and forms in clusters on the end of long stems.
Scientific name: Setaria italica
Higher classification: Setaria
A foxtail is a spikelet or cluster of a grass, that serves to disperse its seeds as a unit. Thus, the foxtail is a type of diaspore or plant dispersal unit. Some grasses that produce a foxtail are themselves called "foxtail", also "spear grass". Foxtail grows in clumps similar to crabgrass, only smaller. Its leaves are flat. Foxtail has sharply pointed tips and a round base. The main identifier is the bushy head that resemble a fox's tail. This can be green or purple, depending on the species.
Scientific name: Eleusine indica
Higher classification: Eleusine
Eleusine indica, the Indian goosegrass, yard-grass, goosegrass, wiregrass, or crowfootgrass, is a species of grass in the family Poaceae. It is a small annual grass distributed throughout the warmer areas of the world to about 50 degrees latitude. It is an invasive species in some areas. It appears as a pale green mat-like clump with flattened stems that grow in a low rosette. Flower stalks are short, stout, and compressed. They bloom from July to October. Seed heads are somewhat similar to those of dallisgrass, but short and stiff.
Scientific name: Cardamine hirsuta
Higher classification: Bittercresses
Cardamine hirsuta, commonly called hairy bittercress, is an annual or biennial species of plant in the family Brassicaceae, and is edible as a salad green. It is common in moist areas around the world. Just like the name suggests, hairy bittercress leaves are hairy on both the top and bottom. It starts as a rosette and then grows more upright, up to about 10 inches. They form dense mats as several plants grow around each other. The flowers are small and white and have four petals.
Scientific name: Lamium amplexicaule Higher classification: Dead-nettles
Order: Lamiales Kingdom: Plantae
Lamium amplexicaule, commonly known as common henbit, or greater henbit, is a species of Lamium native to Europe, Asia and northern Africa. It is a low-growing annual plant growing to 10–25 cm tall, with soft, finely hairy stems. The leaves are opposite, rounded, 2–3 cm diameter, with a lobed margin.Spreads about 12"; dark green, scallop-edge leaves.
Higher classification: Conyza
Species: E. canadensis
Erigeron canadensis is an annual plant native throughout most of North America and Central America. It is also widely naturalized in Eurasia and Australia. Common names include horseweed, Canadian horseweed, Canadian fleabane, coltstail, marestail, and butterweed. Horseweed starts out as a small rosette, and resembles a mare's tail when they mature. At maturity, it can be an erect stem up to 10 feet tall! An abundance of dark green leaves alternate from the stem. The flowers initially look like small daisy-like flowers but they mature into seed heads that resemble dandelion puffs.
Scientific name: Chenopodium album
Higher classification: Goosefoots
Chenopodium album is a fast-growing weedy annual plant in the genus Chenopodium. Though cultivated in some regions, the plant is elsewhere considered a weed. The weed varies in height from 1 to 6 feet tall. Stems are erect and sturdy and often tinged with red or striped with pink, purple, or yellow. Leaves vary in shape from triangular to ovate to lanceolate. They are thick with white glands that are especially dense on the lower surface.
Scientific name: Trifolium campestre
Higher classification: Clover
Trifolium campestre, commonly known as hop trefoil, field clover and low hop clover, is a species of clover native to Europe and western Asia, growing in dry, sandy grassland habitats, fields, woodland margins, roadsides, wastelands and cultivated land. The species name campestre means "of the fields". Can be identified by its hairy branched stems that can be green or a little reddish in color. Leaves are hairless and alternate along the stem. The blooms are bright yellow flowers that grow in loose clusters on long stalks.
Scientific name: Cyperus rotundus
Higher classification: Nutsedges
Nutsedges are perennial weeds in the sedge family and superficially resemble grasses.They can kill lawn grasses. The leaves are grass-like and yellow-green, while the spiky head is purple or yellow. It has a faster growth rate than most grasses and has a more upright growth habit. This makes for a nonuniform turf.
Scientific name: Oxalis
Higher classification: Wood sorrels
Oxalis is a large genus of flowering plants in the wood-sorrel family Oxalidaceae, comprising about 570 species. The genus occurs throughout most of the world, except for the polar areas; species diversity is particularly rich in tropical Brazil, Mexico and South Africa. Oxalis grows on weak stems that branch at the base. The leaves form in groups of three leaflets on long petioles. Often mistaken for clover, the leaves differ from clover in that they are distinctly heart shaped. The flower is yellow with five petals and occurs in clusters.
Scientific name: Veronica persica
Higher classification: Speedwells
Veronica persica is a flowering plant in the family Plantaginaceae. It is native to Eurasia and is widespread as an introduced species in the British Isles, North America, eastern Asia, including Japan and China, and Australia and New Zealand. Stems can be up to 2 feet long. The whole plant is covered with tiny hairs. Leaves are opposite one another on the stem and are roundish or oval and 4 to 16 cm long. Flowering takes place February to May, and the flowers are blue with darker blue lines and white centers.
Scientific name: Gamochaeta purpurea Order: Asterales
Gamochaeta purpurea, the purple cudweed, purple everlasting, or spoonleaf purple everlasting, is a plant native to North America. The cudweed family of weeds grow in basal rosettes. Both the leaves and seed-heads are covered in fine, white "woolly" fibers and are oval-shaped. In winter, they will remain as a rosette, but will grow a stem with purple flowers in spring.
Scientific name: Portulaca oleracea
Higher classification: Purslanes
Species: P. oleracea
Portulaca oleracea is an annual succulent in the family Portulacaceae, which may reach 40 cm in height. Approximately forty cultivars are currently grown. Stems are reddish-green and thick, creep along the ground, and rarely grow more than 4" tall. The leaves are paddle-shaped and can be up to 2" long. This is considered an edible weed, but be sure not to confuse it with Spurge, which is NOT edible.
Scientific name: Ambrosia
Higher classification: Daisy family
Ragweeds are flowering plants in the genus Ambrosia in the aster family, Asteraceae. They are distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas, especially North America, where the origin and center of diversity of the genus are in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. It can grow up to 5 feet tall and has hairy stems and light green leaves, up to 4" long. Ragweed flowers are yellowish-green and small. They grow in clusters up to 6" long near the top of the plant. It blooms in late summer to early fall.
Scientific name: Capsella bursa-pastoris Higher classification: Shepherd's-Purses
Order: Mustards and allies
Capsella bursa-pastoris, known as shepherd's purse because of its triangular flat fruits, which are purse-like, is a small annual and ruderal flowering plant in the mustard family. The weed first forms a rosette, then a stem emerges that can grow up to 20 inches tall. Leaves are lightly covered in hairs and vary in shape but are deeply lobed. The flower stems are single or branched. Flowering takes place in late winter or early spring. The four white flower petals are sometimes tinged pale pink.
Scientific name: Euphorbia
Higher classification: Spurges
Euphorbia is a very large and diverse genus of flowering plants, commonly called spurge, in the spurge family. "Euphorbia" is sometimes used in ordinary English to collectively refer to all members of Euphorbiaceae, not just to members of the genus. There are many kinds of spurge, but most are low-growing, creeping weeds that form a dense mat if left to mature. Leaves are oval and can be reddish brown. The stems exude a milky white sap if broken.
Scientific name: Allium ursinum
Higher classification: Allium
Species: A. ursinum
Allium ursinum, known as wild garlic, wild cowleek, ramsons, buckrams, broad-leaved garlic, wood garlic, bear leek or bear's garlic, is a bulbous perennial flowering plant in the amaryllis family Amaryllidaceae. It is native to Europe and Asia, where it grows in moist woodland. 8" to 12" tall with long pointed leaves and white flowers that appear directly from the bulb.
Scientific name: Allium canadense
Higher classification: Allium
Allium canadense, the Canada onion, Canadian garlic, wild garlic, meadow garlic and wild onion is a perennial plant native to eastern North America from Texas to Florida to New Brunswick to Montana. The species is also cultivated in other regions as an ornamental and as a garden culinary herb. Much like wild garlic it grows 8" to 12" tall with thin, waxy, spear-like leaves that appear directly from the bulb.
Scientific name: Viola sororia
Higher classification: Violet
Viola sororia, known commonly as the common blue violet, is a short-stemmed herbaceous perennial plant that is native to eastern North America. It is known by a number of common names, including common meadow violet, purple violet, woolly blue violet, hooded violet, and wood violet. Best known for their violet flowers, but they can bloom in other colors such as light blue and white. The leaves are heart-shaped but may also taper to a fine point.
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